Web-Materials

 
Index

A
Absorption; see Optical absorption
Acceptors, 338, 403
Accumulation, 497
Accumulation region, 388
Activated state, 89
Activation energy, 89
Active device, defined, 497
Affinity, electron, 323, 334, 404
Allotropy, 54 - 56, 92
        transition temperature, 54
Alloy, 154
Amorphous semiconductors, 69 - 74
Amorphous solids, 69 - 74, 89
Ampere's law, 597
Angular momentum, 233
        intrinsic, 213-216
        orbital, 203
        total, 216-218
Anion, 12, 89
Anisotropy, magnetocrystalline, 610-612
        shape, 627, 653
Antibonding orbital, 242, 244
Antiferromagnetism, 603, 650
Antireflection coating, 497, 688
Arrhenius rate equation, 42
a-Si:H, 73
Atomic concentration, 48
Atomic magnetic moments, 591-592
Atomic mass and units (amu), 89
Atomic packing factor (APF), 48, 89
Atomic structure, 3 - 7
        orbital angular momentum quantum number, 4, 200, 208, 234
        principal quantum number, 4, 200, 234
        shell, 4, 207
        subshells, 4, 207
Attenuation, 718
Attenuation coefficient, 718
Attenuation in optical fibers, 699-702
        Graph, 700
        Rayleigh scattering limit, 701
Avalanche breakdown, 442-444, 497
Avalanche effect, 443
Average free time (in electron drift), 105
        see also Mean free time
Avogadro's number, 21, 89


B
Balmer-Ryberg formula, 212
Balmer series, 238
Bandgap (energy gap) Eo, 257-258, 307, 309, 323
        direct bandgap, 378, 396
        indirect bandgap, 378, 397
Band theory of solids, 247-251
Basis, 43, 87
Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer, 632, 640
Barkhausen effect, 617
BCC (body centered cubic) see Crystal structure
BCS theory see Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer
BCT (body centered tetragonal) see Crystal structure
Bednorz, J. George, 588
Beer-Lambert law, 376
Biaxial crystals, 705
        negative, 705
        positive, 705
Bipolar junction transistor, 415, 446-460, 497
        a, 449
        active region, 450
        amplifier, 451-453, 456-459
        b, 449, 459
        base, 446
        base-width modulation, 451, 497
                see also Early effect
        collector, 446
        collector junction, 447, 498
        common base, 451-455
        common emitter, 456-457
        emitter, 446
        emitter current, 448
        emitter injection efficiency, 454-455, 502
        emitter junction, 447, 498
        equations, 501-502
        input resistance, 452, 458
        small signal equivalent circuit, 499
        small signal low-frequency model, 457-460
        transconductance, 458
        transistor action, 449
        transit time, 449
        voltage gain, 452, 459
Birefringence, see also Retarding plates
        of calcite, 708-709
        of calcite crystal, photo, 704
        circular, 712-714
        crystals, 704, 718
BJT, see Bipolar junction transistor
Blackbody radiation, 172-175
        Planck's formula, 173
        Rayleigh-Jeans law, 173
Bloch wall, 610, 612, 650
Bloch wavefunctions, 395
Bohr magneton, 592, 650
Bohr model, 3
Bohr radius, 203, 207
Boltzmann constant, 24
Boltzmann energy distribution, 33
Boltzmann factor, 32
Boltzmann statistics, 268-269
Bond, general, 7-21
        energy, 8, 89
        length, 8
        polar, 18
        primary, 7-15, 92
        relative angle, 69
        secondary, 15-18, 92
        switching, 141
        twisting, 70
Bonding and types of solids, 7 - 21
Bonding energy, 89, 243-244
Bonding orbital, 242, 244
Boson, 641
Boundary conditions, dielectrics, 534-540, 576, 681
        electric field, 681
        magnetic field, 681
        quantum mechanics, 180
Bound charges, 512
Bragg diffraction condition, 166
Bragg's law, 166, 308
Brass, 154
Brattain, Walter Houser, 99
Bravais lattices, 86 - 89
        unit cell geometry, 49, 88
Brewster's angle, 683, 718
Brillouin zones, 307, 309-313
Bronze, 154
Buckminsterfullerene, see Carbon
Built-in field, 479
Built-in potential, 369-370, 418- 420
Built-in voltage, 497
Bulk modulus, 90
B vs. H, 618-619


C
Capacitor, constructions, 550-554
        dielectric materials, 551
        dielectrics table, 554, 582
        electrolytic, 552
        polyester (PET), 556-557, 581
        polymeric film, 552
        tantalum, 553
        temperature coefficient, 556
        types compared, 551, 554, 582
Carbon, 54 - 56
        Buckminsterfullerene, 54- 55
        diamond, 54, 55
        graphite, 54, 55
        properties (table), 56
Carrier concentration
        of extrinsic semiconductor, 336-340
        of intrinsic semiconductor, 328-335
        saturation temperature, 345
        temperature dependence of, 344-349
                extrinsic range, 346
                intrinsic range, 346
                ionization range, 345
Cathode, 313
Cation, 12, 90
CB see Conduction band
Ceramic, materials, 19
        magnets, 628
Chip (integrated circuit), 497
Circular birefrigence, 712-714, 718
        media, 714
        optical activity, 713
        specific rotary power, 712, 720
Clausius-Mossotti equation, 515-517, 576
Coaxial cable failure, 545-546, 548-550
        thermal breakdown, 583-584
Coercivity, 617, 650
Cohesive energy, 13
Collimated beam, 31
Compensated semiconductor, 403
Compensation doping, 340-342, 403, 406
Complimentary principle, 233
Complex propagation constant, 691, 719
Complex refractive index 690-694, 719, 722-724
        for a-Si, 692
        extinction coefficient, 692, 719
Compton effect, 233
Compton scattering, 170-172
Conduction, 102-108, 364-370
        in metals, 274-275
        in semiconductors, 326-328
        in silver, 275
Conduction band (CB), 257-258, 322-323, 403
Conduction electron concentration, 103, 134
Conduction in solids, electrical, 101 - 134
        in thin films, 152-153
        thermal, 134-140
Conductivity
        activation energy for, 147
        lattice-scattering-limited, 110
        of extrinsic semiconductor, 337, 339
        of Fermi level electrons in a metal, 274
        of intrinsic semiconductor, 328
        of ionic crystals and glasses, 145-148
        of metals, 102, 302-303
        of nonmetals, 140-148
        temperature dependence of, 108-111, 352-354
Conductivity mixture rule, 126
Constantan, 157
Contact potential, 276-278
Continuity equation, 370-375
        steady-state, 372-375
        time-dependent, 370-371

Continuous randon network (CRN) model, 70
Cooper pairs, 641, 650
Coordination number (CN), 10, 14
        definition, 90
Corona discharge, 542, 576
Covalent bond, 90
Covalently bonded solids, 9-11
Critical angle, 719
Critical electric field, 497
Crystal directions and planes, 49 - 54, 98
Crystal lattice, 43-56
        different types, 88
Crystal periodicity, 43
        strained around a point defect, 58
Crystal structure, 43, 90
        body-centered cubic (BCC), 44, 88, 97
        body-centered tetragonal (BCT), 88
        close-packed, 11, 44
        CsCl, 47
        diamond cubic, 45, 97
        face-centered cubic (FCC), 11, 44, 48, 88, 91
        hexagonal close-packed (HCP), 44
        NaCl, 47
        polymorphic, 54
        properties (table), 48
        types, 47, 88
        zinc blende (ZnS), 46, 97-98
Crystal surface, 64 - 66
        absorption, 65
        adsorption, 65
        chemisorption, 65
        dangling bonds, 65, 72
        passivating layer, 66
        physisorption (physical adsorption), 65
        reconstructed, 65
        terrace-ledge-kink model, 66
Crystal symmetry, 88
Crystal systems, 88
Crystal types, 43-48
Crystalline defects, 56 - 64
Crystalline solid, 43
Crystalline state, 43 - 67
Crystallization, 90
        from melt, 63
        nuclei, 63
Cubic crystals, 88
Cubic symmetry, 43
Curie temperature, 566, 576, 607-608, 650
        table, 608
Curie-Weiss law, 601
Czochralski growth, 67 - 69


D
De Broglie relationship, 175-177, 233
Debye equations, 532, 576
Debye frequency, 297, 313
Debye heat capacity, 296-300
Debye temperature, 297, 313
       table, 299
Defect structures, 66 - 67
Deformation plastic (permanent), 62
Degeneracy, 199
Degenerate semiconductor, 354, 403
Degree of freedom, 24
Delocalized electrons, 11
        electron cloud or gas, 11, 251
Demagnetization, 619-621
Density of states, 261-267, 271-272, 313, 328-330, 377
        effective density at CB edge, 330, 403
        effective density at VB edge, 330
Deperming, see Demagnetization
Depletion capacitance, 438-439
Depletion region, see pn junction
Depolarizing field, 574-575
Diamagnetism, 600-602, 650
Dielectric breakdown, 540-550
        breakdown mechanisms compared, 547
        electrical tree, 545
        electrofracture, 544-545, 577
        electromechanical, 544, 577
        electronic, 543, 577
        external discharges, 547, 577
        in coaxial cables, 548-550, 583-584
        in gases, 541-542, 582
        in liquids, 542-543
        in solids, 543-550
        internal discharges, 545, 577
        intrinsic, 543,577
        loss, 526-534
        partial discharge, 541-542, 578
        surface tracking, 547, 577, 578
        table, 541
        thermal, 544, 578
        water treeing, 547
Dielectric materials, 507-587
        constant, see relative permittivity
        definition, 576
        loss, 526-534, 576
        loss table, 534
        strength, 576; see dielectric breakdown
        strength table, 541
Dielectric mirrors, 689, 719
Dielectric resonance, 527-528, 576
Diffusion, 41-43, 90, 97, 364-368, 403, 497
        coefficient, 43, 90, 368
        current, 424
        current density, 364, 366
        diffusion length, 372, 375, 423
        mean free path, 365
Diffusion capacitance, 440-442, 497
Diffusion coefficient, 90, 368
Dihroism, 709
Diode, see pn junction
        equation, 428
        long, 498
        short, 426, 499
Dipolar polarization, 520-523, 576
        relaxation, 526-529, 576
        relaxation equation, 576
Dipole-dipole interaction, 17
Dipole moment, see Electric dipole moment; Magnetic dipole moment
Dipole relaxation, 526-531, 576
Dirac, Paul Adrien Maurice, 270
Dislocations, 60 - 63, 87, 90
        edge, 60, 90
        screw, 60, 61
Dispersion relation, 719; see also Refractive index
Dispersive medium, 719
Domains, see Ferromagnetism
Donors, 337, 403
Doping, 335-344
        compensation, 340
        n-type, 332, 336-338
        p-type, 332, 338-340
Doppler effect, 228, 233
Drift mobility, 105, 349-352
        definition, 154
        due to ionic conduction, 147
        effective, 113, 351
        impurity dependence, 349
        impurity-scattering-limited, 113, 351, 404
        lattice-scattering-limited, 113, 350, 404
        tables, 132, 334
        temperature dependence, 349
Drift velocity, 102, 106, 154, 327
Drude model, 102, 275
Dulong-Petit rule, 26, 298


E
Early effect, 451, 497
Early voltage, 476
Eddy currents and losses, 650, 657
Effective mass, 259-260, 313, 398-401, 403
EHP see Electron hole pairs
Eigenenergy, 184
Eigenfunction, 180
Einstein, photoelectric effect, 166
        relation, 160, 367, 404
E-k diagrams, 393-397
Elastic modulus, 20, 90
Electric dipole moment, 15, 90, 509-511, 576
        definition, 15, 90
        induced, 17, 510, 669-670
        permanent, 15, 520-521
Electric displacement, 571-575
Electric susceptibility, 513, 577
Electrical conductivity, 154, 157-158
Electrical contacts, 128 - 130
Electrical noise, 37-39, 96
        see also Noise
Electrical switches, 125 - 128
Electrochemical potential, 277
Electron, 336-338
        as a wave, 175-177, 304-306, 393, 395, 399
        average energy in CB, 333, 403
        average energy in a metal, 313
        concentration in CB, 330, 336-337, 340
        conduction electrons, 103, 141, 254
        confined, 182-187
        crystal momentum 396, 399, 697
        current due to, 367
        diffraction in crystals, 304-313
        diffraction patterns, 176
        effective mass, 259-260, 313, 327, 398-401, 403
        effective speed in metals, 273
        energy in hydrogenic atom, 205-208
        energy in metals, 273
        group velocity, 399
        in a potential box, 197 - 199
        mobility, 328
        momentum, 184
        motion and drift, 397-398
        spin, 213-216, 235
        standing wave, 305
        wavefunction in hydrogenic atom, 199-205
        wavelength, 177
Electron affinity, 323, 381-382, 404
Electron beam deposition, 72
Electron drift mobility see Drift mobility
Electron-hole pairs, 255, 324-326
        generation, 258, 324-325, 331, 358-361
        mean thermal generation time, 430
        recombination, 325, 325-326
Electronegativity, 90
Electronic impurity, 483
Electronic (quantum) state, 203, 214
Electro-optic effects, 714-718, 719
        field induced refractive index, 714
        Kerr effect, 714, 719
        noncentrosymmetric crystals, 715
        Pockels effect, 714
Energy, quantized, 184, 205-208
        ground state energy, 205
        hydrogenic atom, 199
        infinite potential well, 198
        in the crystal, 259-263, 404
        levels in molecules, 241-246
Energy bands, 247-251, 261-264
Energy density, 233, 599
Energy gap (Eo) see Bandgap
Epitaxial layer, 482, 498
Equilibrium state, 35, 90
Eutectic composition, 84, 91
Eutectic point, 81
Evanescent wave, 684, 724
        attenuation, 684
        attenuation coefficient, 684
        penetration depth, 685
Excess carrier concentration, 358, 404
Exchange integral, 606
Exchange interaction, 604-607, 651, 665
External quantum effiency, 498
External reflection, 685, 687, 723
Extinction coefficient, 692, 719
Extrinsic semiconductors, 335-344, 404


F
Family of directions in a crystal, 51
Family of planes in a crystal, 53
Fermi energy, 250, 271, 276-278, 314, 316, 381-382, 404
        in a metal, 271, 273
        in intrinsic semiconductor, 332
        table, 251
Fermi surface, 310
Ferrimagnetism, 604, 651
Ferrite antena, 657-658
Ferrites, 651, 657-658
        see also Ferrimagnetism
Ferroelectric crystals, 566-571, 577
Ferromagnetism, 603, 651
        closure domains, 610
        domains, 603, 609-610, 652
        domain wall energy, 651
        domain wall motion, 614-615
        domain walls, 612-613, 651
        magnetocrystalline anisotropy, 610-612
        materials table, 608
        origin, 604-607
        polycrystalline materials, 615-619
Fick's first law, 366
Field effect transistor, 498; see JFET; MOSFET
Field emission, 287-291, 314
Flux, defined, 233
        of particles, 364
        of photons, 170
Flux quantization, 649-650
Forward bias, 427, 598
        see also pn Junction
Fourier's law, 135, 154
Fowler-Nordheim equation, 290
Fraunhofer, 211-212
Frenkel defect, 59, 91
Fresnel's equations, 680-690, 719
Fresnel's optical indicatrix, 705-708, 720
        defined, 706-707
        extraordinary wave, 706
        ordinary wave, 706


G
GaAs, 46, 334, 407
Gas pressure (kinetic theory), 23
Gauss's law, 534-535, 572-574, 577
Glasses, 69 - 74
        melt spinning, 71
Grain, 63, 91
Grain boundaries, 63 - 64, 91
Grain coarsening (growth), 64
Ground state, 205, 233
        energy, 205
Group index, 672-675, 719
Group velocity, 314, 672-675, 719
        in medium, 673
        in vacuum, 673
Gyromagnetic ratio, 591


H
Hall coefficient, 131-132, 154, 311
        for ambipolar conduction, 144
Hall devices, 130-134
Hall effect, 130 - 134, 154, 158-159
        for ambipolar conduction, 144
        in semiconductors, 142-143, 408
Hall mobility, 132, 134
Hard magnetic materials, 626-630, 633, 651
        single domain particles, 626-628, 651
        table, 626
Harmonic oscillator, 291-296, 314
        average energy, 296
        energy, 292
        potential energy of, 292
        Schrödinger's equation, 292
        zero point energy, 292, 314
Heat, 35, 91
Heat, thermal fluctuation and noise, 34 - 39
        noice in an RLC circuit, 39
        rms noice voltage, 38
        thermal equilibrium, 35
Heat capacity, 24, 91
Heat current, 139
Heat of fusion, 76
Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, 187-190, 233
        for position and momentum, 188
        for energy and time, 188
Helium atom, 218-220
Helium-neon laser, 225-228
Hervé-Vandamme relationship, 722
Heterogeneous mixture (multiphase solid), 125 - 128, 154
Heterojunction, 498
Heterostructure devices, 482, 485
        confining layers, 486
Hexagonal crystals, 45, 88
Hole, 141, 258, 321, 324-326, 400-401
        concentration in VB, 330, 339-340
        current due to, 367
        effective mass, 328, 400-401
        mobility, 328
Homogeneous mixture, 154
Homojunction, 498
Hund's rule, 220-222, 233
Hybridization, 256
Hydrogen bond, 16
Hydrogenic atom, 199-218
        electron wavefunctions, 199-204
Hysteresis loop, 617-619, 651
        loss, 652, 657


I
Image charges theorem, 287
Impact ionization, 443, 498
Impurities, 57
Incandescence, 379
Inductance, 597
        of a solenoid, 654
        toroid, 598, 625, 655
Insulation strength, see Dielectric breakdown
        aging, 546, 577
Integrated circuit (IC), 498
Intensity, defined, 233
        of EM waves, 164
        of light, 164, 169-170, 685-686
Interfacial polarization see Polarization
Internal discharges see Dielectric breakdown
Internal reflection, 683, 685, 686-687, 723
Interstitial site, 40, 91
        impurity, 58, 75
Intrinsic angular momentum, see Angular momentum; Spin
Intrinsic concentration (ni), 331, 404, 425
Intrinsic semiconductors, 322-335, 404
Inversion, 498, 470-473, 498, see also MOSFET
Ion implantation, 480, 498
Ionic conduction, 154
Ionic crystals, 15
Ionically bonded solids, 12 - 15, 93-94
        table, 18
Ionization energy, 12, 205, 404
        of He+, 211
Irradiance, 675-677
        average, 677, 719
        instantaneous, 677, 719
Isoelectronic impurity, 498
Isomorphous, 91
Isomorphous Alloys, 75
Isomorphous phase diagram, 76, 154
Isotropic substance, 91


J
JFET, 460-470, 498
        amplifier, 467-470, 504
        channel, 461, 497
        characteristics, 463, 466
        common source amplifier, 467
        drain, 461
        drain current, 461
        gate, 461
        general principles, 460-466
        pentode region, 466
        pinch-off condition, 465
        pinch-off voltage, 462, 499, 503
        quiescent point, 467
        source, 460
        transconductance, 469
Johnson resistor noise equation, 38
Josephson effect, 647-649
        definition of 1 V, 649
Joule's law, 154
Junction field effect transistor see JFET


K
k see Wavevector
Kamerlingh Onnes, Heike, 632
Kerr effect, 714, 719
        coefficients, table 716
Kilby, Jack, 414
Kinetic (molecular) theory, 21-30, 91
        degree of freedom, 24
        equipartition of energy theorem, 24
        heat capacity, 24
                see also Dulong-Petit rule
        mean kinetic energy, 24
        mean speed, 32, 34, 103
        thermal fluctuations, 34-39
Kossel model, 65
Kramers-Kroning relations, 693, 719


L
Lamellae, 84
Lasers, 222-231, 233
        cavity modes, 229
        Doppler effect, 238
        He-Ne laser, see Helium-Laser laser
        linewidth, 229
        metastable state, 224
        output spectrum, 228-231
        population inversion, 223
        pumping, 224, 234
        semiconductor, 415, 495-497
        stimulated emission, 222, 235
Lattice, 43, 86, 91; see also Bravais lattices
        parameter, 44, 50, 87, 91
        space, 87
        waves, 291-296, 300, 314
Lattice vibrations, 292-302
        density of states, 297, 313
        heat capacity, 298
        internal energy, 297
        modes, 295-296, 314
        state, 295, 314
Law of the junction, 422-423, 498
Lennard-Jones 6-12 potencial energy curve, 19
Lever rule, 129
Light emitting diodes (LEDs), 415, 481-488
        characteristics, 486
        external efficiency, 484-488
        heterojunction high density, 485-487
        linewidth, 487, 498
        materials, 484
        principles, 481-484
        turn-on (cut-in) voltage, 488, 499
Light propagation, 690-691
        attenuated, 691
        conduction loss, 691
        lossless, 690
Light scattering, 690, 698-699, 720
Light waves, 664-667
Line defects, 60 - 63
        strain field, 61
Linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO), 243-244, 314
Local field, 515-517, 577
Long range order, 43, 69
Lorentz force, 130, 154
Lorenz number, 136
        see also Wiedemann-Franz-Lorenz
Loss tangent, 530, 578
Luminescence, 379-381
        cathodoluminescence, 381
        electroluminescence, 381, 482
        fluorescence, 379
        phosphorescence, 379
        photoluminescence, 379
Lyman series, 238


M
Magnetic, permeability, 155, 596-600, 652
        quantities table, 597
        relative, 596
Magnetic dipole moment, 589-590, 652
        atomic, 591-592
        of electron, 215
        orbital, 216, 591
        spin, 591,
Magnetic domains, see Ferromagnetism
Magnetic field (B), 154, 652, 675
        transverse, 680
Magnetic field intensity (strength) see Magnetizing field
Magnetic flux, 597, 652
        quantization, 649-650
Magnetic flux density, see Magnetic field
Magnetic materials classification, 621-622
Magnetic quantities and units, table, 597
Magnetic quantum number, 200, 233
Magnetic recording, 641-647
        materials tables, 645, 646
        recording heads, 642-644
        storage media, 644-647, 660
Magnetic susceptibility, 596-600, 652
Magnetization current, 594, 652
Magnetization of matter, 589-661
Magnetization vector (M), 592-694, 652
        and surface currents, 594, 652
Magnetization vs. H, 615-619
        coercivity, 617, 650
        initial magnetization, 618
        remanent (residual), 617, 653
        saturation, 607-608, 619, 653
Magnetizing field (H), 595-596, 652
Magnetocrystalline anisotropy, 610-612, 652
        easy direction, 610, 612, 651
        energy, 653
        hard direction, 612, 651
Magnetometer, 155
Magnetostatic energy, 599-600, 653
Magnetostriction, 613-614, 653
Magnetostrictive energy, 653
Magnets, 626-630
        design, 660
Majority carrier, 358, 404
Mass action law (semiconductors), 331, 404
Matthiessen's rule, 111 - 124, 155
Maxwell's equations, 664
Maxwell's principle of equipartition of energy, 24, 36, 38
Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function, 31-32
Mean free path of gas molecules, 94-95
        of electron, 108, 155
Mean free time, 105, 108, 155
Mean frequency of collisions, 106
Mean kinetic energy and temperature, 21 - 30
Mean scattering time, see Mean free time
Mechanical work, 91
Meissner effect, 633, 653
Metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS), 470-473, 499
        devices, 152
        threshold voltage, 477-479, 499
        see also MOSFET
Metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor, see MOSFET
Metallurgical junction (semiconductors), 416, 498
Metals, band theory, 304-313
        free electron model of, 271-274
        quantum theory of, 271-276
Miller indices, 51 - 54, 92
Millikan, 168
Minority carrier, 358-364, 405
        diffusion, 423
        diffusion length, 404
        excess concentration of, 358-361, 404
        injection, 415, 356-360, 421-423, 499
        lifetime, 360, 404
        profiles (hyperbolic), 501
        recombination time, 360, 500, 501
Miscibility, 92
Mixed bonding, 18 - 19
Mixture rules, 125 - 128, 158
Mobility, see Drift mobility
Mode number, 229
Modern theory of solids, 241-319
Molar heat capacity, 24, 91
Mole, 92
Molecular orbital, 242
Molecular orbital wavefunction, 314
Molecular orbital theory of bonding, 241-246
        hydrogen molecule, 241-244
Molecular speeds, distribution (Stern-type experiment), 31
Molecular velocity and energy distribution, 30 - 34
Monoclinic crystals, 88
Moseley relation, 238
MOSFET, 470-481, 498
        accumulation, 497
        amplifier, 504-505
        depletion layer, 470-472, 497
        enhancement, 473-477, 498
        field effect and inversion, 470-473
        ion implanted, 479-481
        MOST, 498
        NMOS, 499
        PMOS, 499
        self-aligned gate, 480
        silicon gate technology, 480
        threshold voltage, 478-479, 499
Motion of a diatomic molecule, 25
        translational, 25
        rotational, 25
Mott-Jones equations, 280
Müller, K. Alex, 588


N
Natural (resonance) frequency of an atom, 670, 722
Nearly free electron model, 394
Néel temperature, 603
Newton's second law, 21
Nichrome, 121
NMOS, see MOSFET
Node, 185
Nondegenerate semiconductor, 354, 405
Nonstoichiometry, 67
Noise, 34 - 39
Nordheim's rule, 121-124, 155
Normalization condition in quantum mechanics, 184
n-type doping, 336-338
        energy-band diagram, 337


O
Ohmic contacts, 388-393, 405
Ohm's law of electrical conduction, 135
Optic axis, 705-706, 719
        principal, 705, 720
Optical absorption, 375-379, 690-694, 718
        absorption coefficient, 376, 696
        band-to-band (interband), 377, 695-698
        free carrier, 691, 724
        lattice, 694-695
        penetration depth, 696
        upper cut-off wavelength, 695
Optical activity, 719
Optical amplifiers, 231
Optical anisotropy, 704-705, 718
Optical fiber amplifiers, 231-232
        Erbium (Er3+ ion) doped, 231
Optical fibers, 699
        attenuation in, 699-702
Optical field, 664
Optical indicatrix; see Fresnel's indicatrix
Optical properties of materials, 663-723
Optically isotropic, media, 668
        crystals, 704
Orbital, 203, 233, 314
Orbital wavefunction, 234, 314
Orientational polarization, see Dipolar polarization
Orthorombic crystal, 88


P
Paramagnetism, 602, 653
Parity, 186
        even, 186
        odd, 186
Partial discharge, 541, 578
Particle flux, 364-367
Particle statistics, see Statistics
Paschen curves, 582
        series, 238
Passive device, defined, 499
Pauli exclusion principle, 103, 218-219, 234, 268-269, 605
Pauli spin magnetization, 602, 655
Peltier coefficient, 392
        device, 388-393
        effect, 390, 405
Penetration depth, 377
Periodic array of points in space; see Crystal structure
Permeability, absolute, 596, 652
        initial, 622-623, 652
        maximum, 622-623, 653
        relative, 596, 653
        see also Magnetic permeability
Permitivity see Relative permitivity
Phase, 92, 155
        diagrams, 75 - 79, 92
        equilibrium, 78
        eutectic, 81-86
        lever rules, 79
        liquidus curve, 77
        nonequilibrium cooling, 79
        solidus curve, 77
        tie line, 79
Phonons, 291-302, 314, 357, 405, 697
        dispersion relation, 294, 313
        energy, 294
        group velocity, 294
        momentum, 294, 697
Phosphors, 379
Photoconductivity, 362-364, 405
Photodetectors, 415
Photoelectric effect, 166-170, 234
Photogeneration, 324, 358-360, 405
Photoinjection, 405
Photon amplification, 222
Photons, 163 - 177, 234
        energy, 168, 171
        flux, 170
        momentum, 170, 171
        picture, 170
Photovoltaic devices, principles, 488-494; see also Solar cell
        antireflection coating, 688, 718, 723
        fill factor, 494, 498
        finger electrodes, 488
        I-V characteristics,493
        load line, 493-494
        open circuit voltage, 490
        operating point, 494
        photocurrent, 490, 499
        power delivered to the load, 494
        short cicuit current, 491
        total current, 492
Piezoelectric, bender, 584-585
        coefficients, 560, 584
        detectors, 585
        materials, 578
        poling, 562, 578
        properties table, 561
        quartz oscillators and filters, 563-566
        spark generator, 562, 587
        transducer, 560, 579
Piezoelectricity, 557-566
Pinch-off, 462, 475, 499, 503
Planar concentration of atoms, 53, 92
Planar defects, 63 - 64
Planck, 173
        constant, 168
Plazma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD), 73
PLZT, 578
PMOS, see MOSFET
pn Junction, 416-446
        band diagram, 434-438
        built-in potential, 418-420
        depletion capacitance, 438-439, 497
        depletion region, 417, 497
        depletion region width, 438
        diffusion capacitance, 440-442
        diffusion current, 424
        forward bias, 421-429, 498
        I-V characteristics, 437
        I-V for Ge, Si and GaAs, 426, 429
        ideal diode equation, 425
        ideality factor, 428
        incremental resistance, 440-442
        no bias, 416-421
        recombination current, 427, 499
        reverse bias, 429-433
        reverse saturation current, 425, 430, 499
        short diode, 426
        space charge layer (SCL), 417, 497
        storage capacitance, see Diffusion capacitance
        temperature dependence, 500
        total current, 427-428
        total reverse current, 431
Pockels cell phase modular, 716, 724
Pockels effect, 714, 720
        coefficients, table, 716
Point defects, 57 - 60
        Frenkel, 59
        impurities, 57-59
        interstitial, 58
        Schottky, 59
        substitutional, 58
        thermodynamic, 57
Poisson ratio, 159
Polar molecules, 16
Polarizability, 14, 510, 671, see Polarization
        defined, 510, 578
Polarization, 92, 507, 508-525
        charges, 513
        definition, 509-511, 578
        dipolar, 520-523, 576
        electronic, 509-511, 517-519, 577, 671, 722
        electronic bond, 577
        induced, 510, 577
        interfacial, 523-524, 577
        ionic, 519-520, 577, 695
        orientational, see Dipolar polarization
        table, 525
        total, 524-525
        vector, 512-515, 578
Polarization angle, see Brewster's angle
Polarization modulator, 718
        halfwave voltage, 718
Polarization of EM wave, 683, 702-704, 720
        circular, 703, 718
        elliptical, 704
        liner, 683, 702
        plane, 702
Polarized molecule, 17
Poling, 562, 578
Polymorphism, 54, 92
Polysilicon gate (poly-Si), 479-481, 499
Population inversion, 223, 234, see also Lasers
Poynting vector, 675-677, 720
Principal optic axis, 705
Principal, refractive index, 705
Probability, see Statistics
Probability of electron scattering, 107
Probability per unit energy, 33
Proeutectic, 85
Properties of electrons in a band, 252-255
Property, 92
p-type doping, 338-340
        energy-band diagram, 339
Pyroelectric, crystals, 566-571
        coefficients, 569
        detector, 570-571, 586
        effect, 566-570, 578
        material, 578
        Table, 569
PZT, 578, 586


Q
Q-factor, 578
Quantization
        of angular momentum, 208-218
        of energy, 199-207
        space, 208-213
Quantum leak; see Tunneling
Quantum numbers, 184, 200
        magnetic, 200, 208, 233
        orbital angular momentum, 200, 208, 234
        principal, 200, 234
        quantum state, 203
        spin magnetic, 213, 235
Quantum physics, 163 - 239
        tunneling, 192, 235
Quartz oscillators and filter, 563-566
Quiescent point, 467


R
Radial function, 202-204
Random motion, 364-370
Rayleigh scattering, 698-699, 701
        in silica,701
Recombination, 331, 355-357, 402, 405
        current, 427-428, 430-431, 499
        direct, 355-356
        indirect, 355, 402-403
        mean recombination time, 360, 427
Reflectance, 685-686, 693, 720
Reflection of light, 680-685
        at normal incidence, 683
        coefficient, 680-685, 693, 720
        external, 685, 687, 723
        internal, 683, 685, 686-687, 723
        phase changes, 682
Refracted light, 677-678, 720
        transmission coefficients, 680-685, 721
        phase changes, 682
Refractive index, 667-669, 720, 721
        at low frequencies, 668
        definition, 667
        dispersion relation, 663, 671-672, 719, 722
        dispersion relation in diamond, 722, 723
        dispersion relation in GaAs, 672
        temperature coefficient, 723
        vs wavelength, 669-672
Relative permittivity, 508-525, 578, 579, 668, 671, 721
        complex, 528, 576, 691
        definition, 508, 576
        real and imaginary, 528-533
        table, 525, 533
Relaxation time, 105, 155, 578
Remanence see Magnetization
Remanent magnetization, see Magnetization
Residual resistivity, 114, 155
Resistivity index (n), 118
Resistivity-mixture rule, 126, 127
Resistivity of metals (Table), 115
        due to impurities, 124
        graph, 116
Resistivity of metal thin films, 153
Retarding plates, 710-711, 720, 724
        half-wave retarder, 711
        quarter-wave retarder, 711
        quartz retarder, 711
        relative phase shift, 710
        retardation, defined, 710
Reverse bias, 499
        see also pn Junction
RF heating, 68
Richardson-Dushman equation, 284-287, 289
Rydberg constant, 212


S
Saturated solution, 92
Saturation of magnetism, 607
Schottky defect, 92
Schottky effect, 287-291
        Schottky coefficient, 289
Schottky junction, 381-388, 405
        built-in electric field, 382
        built-in potential, 382
        depletion region, 382
        diode, 381-385
        energy-band diagram, 382, 384, 386
        I-V characteristic, 384
        Schottky barrier height, 383
        Schottky junction equation, 385
        solar cell, 385-387
        space charge layer (SCL), 382
Schrödinger's equation, 178-182, 234, 394
        time dependent, 178-179
        time independent, 178, 234
SCL, see space charge layer
Screw dislocation, 61, 92
Secondary bonding, 15 - 18, 92
Seebeck effect, 278-284, 314
        in semiconductors, 412-413
        Seebeck coefficient, 278-280
Seed, 68
Selection rules, 209-210, 227, 234
Sellmeier equation, 722
Semiconductor bonding, 255-257
Semiconductor devices, 415-505
        ultimate limits to device performance, 504-505
Semiconductor optical amplifiers, 495-497
Semiconductors, 255-259, 321-413
        direct and indirect bangap, 393-402, 697
        tables, 315, 334
Shell model, 3
Shockley equation, 425, 499
Shockley, William, 320, 413
Short-range order, 70
Silicon, 72, 255-256, 322-326
        amorphous, 72; see also a-Si:H
        conduction band, 257-258
        crystalline, 72, 98
        energy band diagram, 322
        hybrid orbitals, 256
        hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H), 73
        pure crystals, 80
        valence band, 257-258
        zone refining, 80
Silicon gate technology, see Polysilicon gate
Silicon single crystal growth, 67 - 69
Skin depth for conduction, 149
Skin effect: HF resistance of conductor, 148 - 152, 155
        at 60 Hz, 160
Skin effect in inductor, 151
Small signal equivalent circuit, 499
Snell's law, 678-679, 720
Soft magnetic materials, 623-626, 653
        table, 624
Solar cell, 385-387, 415; see also Photovoltaic devices, principles
Solder (Pb-Sn), 81-86, 99
Solid solution and Nordheim's rule, 121 - 124, 155
        Cu-Au, 123
        Cu-Ni, 121
Solid solutions, 58, 74 - 86, 92, 155
        interstitial, 75
        isomorphous, 74
        substitutional, 58
Solidification, nucleation, 63-64
Solute, 92
Solvent, 92
Solvus curve, 81
Sound velocity, 300
Space charge layer (SCL), 382, 417
        see also pn Junction
Specific heat capacity, 27, 91
Spectral irradiance, 173
Spherical harmonic, 200-204
Spin, 213-216
Spontaneous emission, 223, 235
SQUID, 633
State, electronic, 203, 214, 235, 314
        ground, 185
        stationary state, 180
Statistics, 268-271
        Boltzmann classical statistics, 268-269, 313
        Boltzmann tail, 271
        Fermi-Dirac statistics, 269-271, 313
        of dopant ionization, 348
        of donor occupation, 338
Stefan's law, 155, 161
Steinmetz equation, 621
Stimulated emission, 223, 235
Stoichiometric compounds, 66, 92
Stoichiometry, 66-67
Strain, 20, 92
Strain gauge, 159, 409
Stress, 20, 92
Strong force, 4
Substrate, 482, 499
Superconductivity, 589, 631-641, 653
        critical current, 637-640
        critical magnetic field, 636, 650
        critical surface, 638
        critical temperature, 631, 650
        high Tc materials, 631, 637
        Meissner effect, 631-634, 653
        Meissner state, 635
        origin, 640-641
        penetration depth, 635
        table, 637
        type I and II, 634-637, 653, 654
        vortex state, 636
        zero resistance, 631
Superconducting solenoid, 638-640, 661
Supercooled liquid, 70
Surface polarization charges, 512
        density, 513
Surface tracking, 547, 578; see also Dielectric breakdown


T
Temperature coefficient of capacitance (TCC), 578, 581
Temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR or a), 111-120, 155, 160
        definition, 114
        metals (table), 115
Temperature dependence of resistivity in pure metals, 108 - 111
Temperature of light bulb filament, 161
Ternary alloys, 483
Tetragonal crystals, 88
Thermal coefficient of linear expansion, 29, 93, 160
Thermal conduction, 158
Thermal conductivity, 134 - 139, 155
        Ag, 158
        due to phonons, 301
        of nonmetals, 300-302
        Table, 138
Thermal equilibrium carrier concentration, 345, 405
Thermal expansion, 27-30, 93
Thermal expansion coefficient; see Thermal coefficient of linear expansion
Thermal fluctuations, 34-39
Thermal generation current, 499
Thermal radiation, 172; see Black body radiation
Thermal resistance, 139-140, 155
Thermal velocity, 349, 405
Thermalization, 375
Thermally activated conductivity, 147, 155
Thermally activated processes, 39 - 43, 89, 147
        activated state and activation energy, 41, 147
        Arrhenius type behaviour, 39
        diffusion, 41, 97
        diffusion coefficient, 43
        jump frequency, 41
        root mean square displacement, 43
Thermionic emission, 284-287, 314
        constant, 286
Thermocouple, 278-284
        thermocouple equation, 281
Thermoelectric cooler, 388-393
Thermoelectric emf, 281-283
Thermoelectric power, 278, 280
Thin metal films and integrated circuit interconnections, 152 - 153
Thomson, 176
Threshold voltage, 470-476, 477-479, 499
Toroid, 598-599
Total internal reflection (TIR), 677-680, 684, 721
        critical angle, 679, 719
        phase change in, 684
Transducer, see Peizoelectric transducer
Transistor action, defined 448-450, 499
        see also Bipolar junction transistor
Transmittance, 685-686, 721
Transmission coefficient, 721
Transverse electric field, 680
Transverse magnetic field, 680
Trapping, 357
Triclinic crystal system, 88
Tunneling, 190-197, 235
        probability, 192
        reflection coefficient, 193
        scanning tunneling microscope, 194-195
        transmission coefficient, 192
Two-phase alloy resistivity, 128 - 130
        Ag-Ni, 130
Two-phase solids, 75 - 86


U
Ultrasonic, see Piezoelectric bender
Unharmonic effect, 30
Unharmonic oscillations, 30
Unharmonicity, 30, 301
Uniaxial crystals, 705
Unipolar conductivity, 106
Unit cell, 43, 49, 93
        hexagonal, 45
Unpolarized light, 683
Upper cut-off (threshold) wavelength, 695
        graph, 696
        table, 695


V
Vacancies, 57, 93, 98
Vacancy, 57-61, 93
        concentration in Al, 59
        concentration in semiconductor, 60
Vacuum deposition, 94-95
Vacuum level (energy), 248-251, 405
Vacuum tubes, 284-291
        rectifier, 285
        saturation current, 285
Valence band (VB), 257-258, 322-326, 405
Valence electron, 5, 93
Valency of an atom, 5
van der Waals bond, 16-17
        water (H20), 16
van der Waals-London force, 16
Varactor diodes, 439
VB see Valence band
Velocity density (distribution) function, 31
Virial theorem, 6, 103
Vitreous silica, 70
Volume expansion, 30
Volume expansion coefficient, 30


W
Wave, defined, 235
        electromagnetic (EM), 163
        energy densities in an EM, 676
        equation, 235
        fields in EM, 675
        incident, 680
        lattice, 293
        light waves, 664-667, 665
        longitudinal, 292
        matter waves, 180
        monochromatic plane EM, 664
        phase, 664, 720
        phase velocity, 666, 667, 720
        propagation constant, 664
        refracted, 680
        transmitted, 680
        transverse, 292
        travelling, 164, 664-665
        ultrasonic, 560
        vibrational, 137
Wavefront, 664, 721
Wavefunction, 178-180
        antisymmetric, 186
        defined, 235
        eigenfunction, 180
        one-electron, 218
        steady state total, 179
        symmetric, 186
Wavenumber, 664, 721; see Wavevector
Wavepacket, 672, 721
Wavevector (k), defined, 164, 236, 721
        of electron, 181, 236, 395-401
Wiedemann-Franz-Lorenz's law, 135
Work function, 168, 236, 251, 276-277, 314, 381-383, 388-389, 405
        effective, 288
        of a semiconductor, 332
        table, 251, 318, 410


X
X-rays, 165-166, 170-172, 238, 317


Y
Young's fringes, 164
        with electrons, 168
Young's modulus, 93


Z
Zener breakdown, 442-445, 499
Zener effect, 445
Zero-point energy, 314
Zone refining, 80 - 81

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Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices, Second Edition - S. O. Kasap